Category: Comics

THE KAPPABASHI CAT: Production Report No.3

Art, Blotting Paper, Cats in Comics, Comics, Japanning March 25, 2018

This is the third in a series of reports documenting the production progress of The Cat Cooking Comics In Kappabashi, the sequel to my graphic novel/artist book Blotting Paper: The Recollected Graphical Impressions Of Doctor Comics that was completed in 2016. Somewhat similar in vein to its predecessor in its graphic narrative approach it differs by being less autobiographical and less of a graphic memoir and markedly more fictive and humorous. Owing to the absence of the Doctor Comics character it contains hardly any of his anecdotes and even fewer human characters as it drifts more in the direction of funny animal comics. The principal character, Cohl the cat from the Blotting Paper graphic novel, has adventures in the Asakusa area of Tokyo to which he has travelled in search of his missing friend the other cat, Busch.

In the Asakusa area of Tokyo where Cohl goes to look for Busch (page from the Blotting Paper graphic novel).

 

Doctor Comics researching the bookshop area of Tokyo.

In addition to the restaurant supplies area some scenes take place in Kanda, the bookshop area of Tokyo. Cohl initially explores the manga shops but then extends it to sources of traditional woodblock printing books as well as books about yokai and other spirits.

Read the previous posts on this new production The Cat Cooking Comics In Kappabashi No.1 and No.2  plus details of the production of all five issues of the Blotting Paper: The Recollected Graphical Impressions Of Doctor Comics artist book/comic, now combined in graphic novel form, and a continuing visual history record and time-line overview of the project read all of the production reports on the following posts:  Issue #1: No.1   No.2   No.3   No.4   No.5   No.6   No.7   No.8   No.9   No.10   No.11   No.12   No.13   Issue #2: No.14   No.15   No.16   No.17   No.18   No.19   No.20   No.21   No.22   No.23   No.24   No.25   No.26   No.27   No.28   No.29   Issue #3: No.30   No.31   No.32   No.33   No.34   No.35   No.36   Issue #4: No.37   No.38   No.39   No.40   No.41   No.42   No.43   No.44   Issue #5: No.45   No.46   No.47   No.48

THE KAPPABASHI CAT: Production Report No.2

Art, Blotting Paper, Cats in Comics, Comics, Japanning January 27, 2018

This is the second in a series of reports documenting the production progress of The Cat Cooking Comics In Kappabashi, the sequel to my graphic memoir/artist book Blotting Paper: The Recollected Graphical Impressions Of Doctor Comics that was completed in 2016. Essentially similar in vein to its predecessor in graphic approach it will be different through being less autobiographical, less of a graphic memoir and more fictive. It will contain fewer anecdotes, fewer human characters and is much more of a funny animal comic. The principal character is the cat Cohl from the Blotting Paper graphic novel and his adventures in Tokyo to which he has travelled in search of his friend Busch.

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At the end of the Blotting Paper graphic novel (page 286 above and page 287 below) Cohl is content to remain in Berlin but is attempting to contact his friend Busch who had left Germany for Japan with his new mate Barks.

bpdigi-p28796

A second and a third draft of the new comic have been written but the design and artwork are still at the preliminary stage. As in the Blotting Paper graphic novel printmaking is being employed along with other forms of image-making including drawing, typography, handwriting, calligraphy, collage and photography. As with the earlier publication the intention is to make a comic in an artist’s book/graphic novel type of format.

Read the first post on this new production The Cat Cooking Comics In Kappabashi No.1 and details of the production of all five issues of the Blotting Paper: The Recollected Graphical Impressions Of Doctor Comics artist book/comic, now combined in graphic novel form, and a continuing visual history record and time-line overview of the project read all of the production reports on the following posts:  Issue #1: No.1   No.2   No.3   No.4   No.5   No.6   No.7   No.8   No.9   No.10   No.11   No.12   No.13   Issue #2: No.14   No.15   No.16   No.17   No.18   No.19   No.20   No.21   No.22   No.23   No.24   No.25   No.26   No.27   No.28   No.29   Issue #3: No.30   No.31   No.32   No.33   No.34   No.35   No.36   Issue #4: No.37   No.38   No.39   No.40   No.41   No.42   No.43   No.44   Issue #5: No.45   No.46   No.47   No.48

THE KAPPABASHI CAT: Production Report No.1

Archive of Australian Alternative Comics, Art, Blotting Paper, Cats in Comics, Comics, Japanning October 28, 2017

This is the first in what I intend will be a regular series of reports documenting the production progress of the sequel to my comic/artist book Blotting Paper: The Recollected Graphical Impressions Of Doctor Comics that was completed in 2016. The current draft title of the new book is The Cat Cooking Comics In Kappabashi. It is in a similar vein to Blotting Paper in its graphic approach but different in that this comic will be less autobiographical and less of a graphic memoir and much more fictive. It will contain fewer anecdotes of Doctor Comics and much more about his cat Cohl’s adventures. A first draft of the comic has been written but the design and the artwork have yet to be commenced. As in the earlier comic printmaking will be employed along with other forms of image-making including drawing, typography, handwriting and photography. As with the earlier publication the intention is to make a comic in an artist’s book type of format.

The work book with the working title-© 2017 Michael Hill.

The story begins in Berlin where Cohl, having heard no word from his friend Busch for almost two years, decides to follow him to Tokyo and try to find him. Cohl has been very comfortable in the German city and consequently reluctant to move but his curiosity has awakened him from his cultural slumber.

Curiosity stirs the sleeping cat-© 2017 Michael Hill

For details of the production of all five issues of the Blotting Paper: The Recollected Graphical Impressions Of Doctor Comics artist book/comic and a continuing visual history record and time-line overview of the project read all of the production reports on the following posts:  Issue #1: No.1   No.2   No.3   No.4   No.5   No.6   No.7   No.8   No.9   No.10   No.11   No.12   No.13   Issue #2: No.14   No.15   No.16   No.17   No.18   No.19   No.20   No.21   No.22   No.23   No.24   No.25   No.26   No.27   No.28   No.29   Issue #3: No.30   No.31   No.32   No.33   No.34   No.35   No.36   Issue #4: No.37   No.38   No.39   No.40   No.41   No.42   No.43   No.44   Issue #5: No.45   No.46   No.47   No.48

PRINT Fish Three

Art, Comics, Film, Japanning June 5, 2017

This is the third post on the fish prints I made with woodblock printmaking techniques for the experimental animated film Toxic Fish. The fish in this sequence is the Kohada or Gizzard Shad.  Its static shape on the woodblock contrasts with the flooding of coloured toxins around it.

A woodblock print with overlaid hand-colouring for the animated film Toxic Fish-© 1990 Michael Hill. This print was later reworked and published as an art postcard-© 1999.

A woodblock print with overlaid hand-colouring for the animated film Toxic Fish-© 1990 Michael Hill.

A woodblock print with overlaid hand-colouring for the animated film Toxic Fish-© 1990 Michael Hill.

A woodblock print with overlaid hand-colouring for the animated film Toxic Fish-© 1990 Michael Hill.

A woodblock print with overlaid hand-colouring for the animated film Toxic Fish-© 1990 Michael Hill.

A woodblock print with overlaid hand-colouring for the animated film Toxic Fish-© 1990 Michael Hill.

A woodblock print with overlaid hand-colouring for the animated film Toxic Fish-© 1990 Michael Hill.

A woodblock print with overlaid hand-colouring for the animated film Toxic Fish-© 1990 Michael Hill.

A woodblock print with overlaid hand-colouring for the animated film Toxic Fish-© 1990 Michael Hill.

Inking prints for the animation in the studio.

 

Other posts of my graphic based material include:  THE GRAFIK GUITAR   BOOKBINDING THE GRAFIK GUITAR   CARTOON   MORE CARTOONS   RESEARCH CARTOONS   UNIVERSITY CARTOONS    POSTCARD   POSTCARD-Second Series   POSTCARD-Fourth Series   PRINT Fish Tai   PRINT Fish Two   PRINT Fish Three   SCRAPBOOK   SCRAPBOOK-More Pages   SCRAPBOOK-A Few Pages More  and my artist book/comic BLOTTING PAPER:  Issue #1: No.1   No.2   No.3   No.4   No.5   No.6   No.7   No.8   No.9   No.10   No.11   No.12   No.13   Issue #2: No.14   No.15   No.16   No.17   No.18   No.19   No.20   No.21   No.22   No.23   No.24   No.25   No.26   No.27   No.28   No.29   Issue #3: No.30   No.31   No.32   No.33   No.34   No.35   No.36   Issue #4: No.37   No.38   No.39   No.40   No.41   No.42   No.43   No.44   Issue #5: No.45   No.46   No.47   No.48

UNIVERSITY CARTOONS

Art, Comics April 16, 2017

This post concludes the collection of cartoons I contributed to U: magazine whilst working at the University of Technology, Sydney. This, plus the three previous cartoon posts, constitute an online gallery of my single panel satirical work.

Enrolment Process-© 2006 Michael Hill

The year the planned introduction of online enrolment didn’t work out led to form filling and long queues.

Fitness training-© 2005 Michael Hill

New students tended to start their studies with enormous optimism and for some even included the gym.

On with studies-© 2004 Michael Hill

Double degrees came into vogue with surprising combinations.

Minister’s Visit-© 2005 Michael Hill

Political activism was especially popular when the Education Minister visited campus.

Club activities-© 2005 Michael Hill

Anime societies and cosplay competitions thrived. Not all Sydney universities had  rock-climbing clubs say, but all five had Anime Clubs.

Sporting clubs-© 2004 Michael Hill

Yes, this really took place, despite the seeming cruelty.

Student Administration-© 2006 Michael Hill

Another actual incident when staff who worked in a room with a view of a parking station were allocated photographs of city traffic to brighten up their room.

Student canteen-© 2006 Michael Hill

A wonderfully esoteric Indonesian cafe in the Staff/Student cafeteria allowed the mixing and matching of dishes.

Posts of my graphic based material include:  THE GRAFIK GUITAR   BOOKBINDING THE GRAFIK GUITAR   CARTOON   MORE CARTOONS   RESEARCH CARTOONS   UNIVERSITY CARTOONS   POSTCARD   POSTCARD-Second Series   POSTCARD-Third Series   POSTCARD-Fourth Series   PRINT Fish Tai   PRINT Fish Two   SCRAPBOOK   SCRAPBOOK-More Pages    SCRAPBOOK-A Few Pages More  and the posts on production of my artist book/comic BLOTTING PAPER:  Issue #1: No.1   No.2   No.3   No.4   No.5   No.6   No.7   No.8   No.9   No.10   No.11   No.12   No.13   Issue #2: No.14   No.15   No.16   No.17   No.18   No.19   No.20   No.21   No.22   No.23   No.24   No.25   No.26   No.27   No.28   No.29   Issue #3: No.30   No.31   No.32   No.33   No.34   No.35   No.36   Issue #4: No.37   No.38   No.39   No.40   No.41   No.42   No.43   No.44   Issue #5: No.45   No.46   No.47   No.48

POSTCARD-Fourth Series

Art, Comics February 27, 2017

Continuing the profile of my art postcards here are some early ones from the years 2007-2009 on the theme of The Seasons. These cards are hand-printed, created from a combination of drawing and printmaking in low print run editions. Once I finished a session it was the end of that particular batch and I would not repeat the design. Cards in an edition are all original prints, similar in design but with no exact duplicates and generally fall within the standard postcard size dimensions of 10cm x 15cm. The orange print marks visible on some cards come courtesy of Australia Post. More information about this project is contained on the three previous POSTCARD posts (see the links below).

A postcard from my Seasons series-© 2008 Michael Hill

A postcard from my Seasons series-© 2008 Michael Hill

A postcard from my Seasons series-© 2008 Michael Hill

A postcard from my Seasons series-© 2008 Michael Hill

A postcard from my Seasons series-© 2008 Michael Hill

A postcard from my Seasons series-© 2008 Michael Hill

A postcard from my Seasons series-© 2008 Michael Hill

A postcard from my Seasons series-© 2008 Michael Hill

A postcard from my Seasons series-© 2008 Michael Hill

A postcard from my Seasons series-© 2008 Michael Hill

A postcard from my Seasons series-© 2007 Michael Hill

A postcard from my Seasons series-© 2007 Michael Hill

A postcard from my Seasons series-© 2007 Michael Hill

A postcard from my Seasons series-© 2007 Michael Hill

A postcard from my Seasons series-© 2008 Michael Hill

A postcard from my Seasons series-© 2008 Michael Hill

A postcard from my Seasons series-© 2008 Michael Hill

A postcard from my Seasons series-© 2008 Michael Hill

A postcard from my Seasons series-© 2009 Michael Hill

A postcard from my Seasons series-© 2009 Michael Hill

UPDATE 7 MAR 2017: A gallery postcard pinup of some cards from the Seasons series.

Posts of my graphic based material include:  THE GRAFIK GUITAR   BOOKBINDING THE GRAFIK GUITAR   CARTOON   MORE CARTOONS   RESEARCH CARTOONS   UNIVERSITY CARTOONS    POSTCARD   POSTCARD-Second Series   POSTCARD-Third Series   POSTCARD-Fourth Series    POSTCARD-Fifth Series   PRINT Fish Tai   PRINT Fish Two   SCRAPBOOK  SCRAPBOOK-More Pages   SCRAPBOOK-A Few Pages More  and the posts on production of my artist book/comic BLOTTING PAPER:  Issue #1: No.1   No.2   No.3   No.4   No.5   No.6   No.7   No.8   No.9   No.10   No.11   No.12   No.13   Issue #2: No.14   No.15   No.16   No.17   No.18   No.19   No.20   No.21   No.22   No.23   No.24   No.25   No.26   No.27   No.28   No.29   Issue #3: No.30   No.31   No.32   No.33   No.34   No.35   No.36   Issue #4: No.37   No.38   No.39   No.40   No.41   No.42   No.43   No.44   Issue #5: No.45   No.46   No.47   No.48

PRINT Fish Two

Art, Comics, Film, Japanning January 28, 2017

This is the second post in my series of fish prints made using the woodcut printmaking method for an experimental animated film titled Toxic Fish. As the ocean fish are poisoned their bodies swell up then disintegrate. The static shape of the fish from the woodblock holds firm at first before being flooded by the toxins. The method employed was to gradually over-ink the block so that details were dampened into puddles and definition reduced.

A woodblock print with overlaid hand-colouring for the animated film Toxic Fish-© 1990 Michael Hill.

A woodblock print with overlaid hand-colouring for the animated film Toxic Fish-© 1990 Michael Hill.

A woodblock print with overlaid hand-colouring for the animated film Toxic Fish-© 1990 Michael Hill.

A woodblock print with overlaid hand-colouring for the animated film Toxic Fish-© 1990 Michael Hill.

A woodblock print with overlaid hand-colouring for the animated film Toxic Fish-© 1990 Michael Hill.

A woodblock print with overlaid hand-colouring for the animated film Toxic Fish-© 1990 Michael Hill.

A woodblock print with overlaid hand-colouring for the animated film Toxic Fish-© 1990 Michael Hill.

A woodblock print with overlaid hand-colouring for the animated film Toxic Fish-© 1990 Michael Hill.

A woodblock print with overlaid hand-colouring for the animated film Toxic Fish-© 1990 Michael Hill.

A woodblock print with overlaid hand-colouring for the animated film Toxic Fish-© 1990 Michael Hill.

A woodblock print with overlaid hand-colouring for the animated film Toxic Fish-© 1990 Michael Hill.

A woodblock print with overlaid hand-colouring for the animated film Toxic Fish-© 1990 Michael Hill.

A woodblock print with overlaid hand-colouring for the animated film Toxic Fish-© 1990 Michael Hill.

A woodblock print with overlaid hand-colouring for the animated film Toxic Fish-© 1990 Michael Hill.

A woodblock print with overlaid hand-colouring for the animated film Toxic Fish-© 1990 Michael Hill.

A woodblock print with overlaid hand-colouring for the animated film Toxic Fish-© 1990 Michael Hill.

A woodblock print with overlaid hand-colouring for the animated film Toxic Fish-© 1990 Michael Hill.

A woodblock print with overlaid hand-colouring for the animated film Toxic Fish-© 1990 Michael Hill.

A woodblock print with overlaid hand-colouring for the animated film Toxic Fish-© 1990 Michael Hill.

A woodblock print with overlaid hand-colouring for the animated film Toxic Fish-© 1990 Michael Hill.

Here is a photo of me carving one of the blocks using a Japanese chisel. Warning! This is not the way to do it. It should be done on a fixed bench and one should carve away from, not towards, oneself. The photo is just a pose for promotional purposes.

Hand carving one of the woodblocks for the animated film Toxic Fish-Photograph © 1990 Demetra Christopher.

Hand carving one of the woodblocks for the animated film Toxic Fish-Photograph © 1990 Demetra Christopher.

If you liked this post you might like to look at others on my Blog. PRINT Fish Tai   PRINT Fish Two   PRINT Fish Three

 

CATS IN COMICS: Busch

Comics December 18, 2016

I have finally gotten round to adding to my series of mini-profiles of cat characters in comics! And this time I focus on another feline character of my own creation, Busch, from the comic Blotting Paper: The Recollected Graphical Impressions Of Doctor Comics.  Busch is a cat of German origin who loves to eat, especially seafood, and to occasionly read comics and even to draw, with a pencil or crayon on whatever paper is to hand, even if it already has an image on it such as a newspaper or magazine page or shopping receipt. He will generally expect that drawing results in the awarding of a fish snack.

The debut appearance of Busch and Cohl from the first issue of Blotting Paper-© 2011 Michael Hill.

Busch can eat and Busch can dance and sometimes he goes hungry, gets seasick, goes shopping, dresses up and has tantrums.

Eating noodles in a container-pen and ink drawing and collage-© 2016 Michael Hill

Eating noodles in a container-pen and ink drawing and collage-© 2016 Michael Hill

Drinking milk by the fridge-pen and ink drawing-© 2012 Michael Hill

Drinking milk by the fridge-pen and ink drawing and photography-© 2012 Michael Hill

Dancing in a Hamburg disco-pen and ink drawing-© 2015 Michael Hill

Dancing in a Hamburg disco-pen and ink drawing and collage-© 2015 Michael Hill

Doing tantrum graffiti on the bedroom wall-pen and ink drawing-© 2012 Michael Hill

Doing tantrum graffiti on the bedroom wall-pen and ink drawing-© 2012 Michael Hill

A seasick cat at sea, pen and ink drawing-© 2015 Michael Hill

A seasick cat at sea, pen and ink drawing-© 2015 Michael Hill

Emoting the fear of hunger-pen and ink drawing-© 2011 Michael Hill

Emoting the fear of hunger-pen and ink drawing-© 2011 Michael Hill

Starving at the fish market in Tokyo-pen and ink drawing and woodblock print-© 2016 Michael Hill

Starving at the fish market in Tokyo-pen and ink drawing and woodblock print-© 2016 Michael Hill

Dressing up as his master-pen and ink drawing, collage and photography-© 2012 Michael Hill

Dressing up as his master-pen and ink drawing, collage and photography-© 2012 Michael Hill

Shopping with a canine friend in Germany-pen and ink drawing-© 2015 Michael Hill

Shopping with a canine friend in Germany-pen and ink and colour pencil drawing with photography and collage-© 2015 Michael Hill

Read all the CATS IN COMICS posts:   Busch   Cohl    Doraemon    Krazy Kat    The Rabbi’s Cat  plus Busch’s adventures in the Blotting Paper Production Reports:  Issue #1: No.1   No.2   No.3   No.4   No.5   No.6   No.7   No.8   No.9   No.10   No.11   No.12   No.13   Issue #2: No.14   No.15   No.16   No.17   No.18   No.19   No.20   No.21   No.22   No.23   No.24   No.25   No.26   No.27   No.28   No.29   Issue #3: No.30   No.31   No.32   No.33   No.34   No.35   No.36   Issue #4: No.37   No.38   No.39   No.40   No.41   No.42   No.43   No.44   Issue #5: No.45   No.46   No.47   No.48

RESEARCH CARTOONS

Art, Comics November 19, 2016

This post continues profiling my collection of cartoons published in U: magazine or related magazines whilst working at the University of Technology, Sydney. These cartoon posts will eventually form an online gallery of my single panel satirical work.

A cross-disciplinary research committee is formed-© 2005 Michael Hill.

A cross-disciplinary research committee is formed-© 2005 Michael Hill.

Some of the committee members have a background in research-© 2004 Michael Hill

Some of the committee members have a background in research-© 2004 Michael Hill

...and know a thing or two about how to proceed-© 2004 Michael Hill

…and know a thing or two about how to proceed-© 2004 Michael Hill

...and begin to assert their experience-© 2004 Michael Hill

…and begin to assert their experience-© 2004 Michael Hill

...others investigate things in the lab on a daily basis-© 2006 Michael Hill

…others investigate things in the lab on a daily basis-© 2006 Michael Hill

...and then there are those trial experiments-© 2005 Michael Hill

…and then there are those trial experiments-© 2005 Michael Hill

...testing new procedures for fast track learning-© 2003 Michael Hill

…testing new procedures for fast track learning-© 2003 Michael Hill

...equating contributory elements-© 2006 Michael Hill

…equating contributory elements-© 2006 Michael Hill

...and there are the designers who simply study problems requiring resolution and what needs to be done and then they just go and do it-© 2004 Michael Hill

…and there are the designers who simply study problems requiring resolution and what needs to be done and then they just go and do it-© 2004 Michael Hill

Posts of my graphic based material include:  THE GRAFIK GUITAR   BOOKBINDING THE GRAFIK GUITAR   CARTOON   MORE CARTOONS   RESEARCH CARTOONS   UNIVERSITY CARTOONS   POSTCARD   POSTCARD-Second Series   POSTCARD-Third Series   POSTCARD-Fourth Series   PRINT Fish Tai   PRINT Fish Two   SCRAPBOOK   SCRAPBOOK-More Pages   SCRAPBOOK-A Few Pages More  and the posts on my artist book/comic BLOTTING PAPER:  Issue #1: No.1   No.2   No.3   No.4   No.5   No.6   No.7   No.8   No.9   No.10   No.11   No.12   No.13   Issue #2: No.14   No.15   No.16   No.17   No.18   No.19   No.20   No.21   No.22   No.23   No.24   No.25   No.26   No.27   No.28   No.29   Issue #3: No.30   No.31   No.32   No.33   No.34   No.35   No.36   Issue #4: No.37   No.38   No.39   No.40   No.41   No.42   No.43   No.44   Issue #5: No.45   No.46   No.47   No.48

POSTCARD-Third Series

Art, Comics September 21, 2016

This post further continues the profile of my making hand-made art postcards in small editions. This post features more examples from the Abstract series. As previously stated each card is an original, similar in design but with no exact duplicates, for example the three prints from the Abstract No. 14 edition, below, all have minor visual differences.

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A postcard from my Abstract No.11 series-© 2007 Michael Hill

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A postcard from my Abstract No.8 series-© 2007 Michael Hill

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A postcard from my Abstract No.19 series-© 2007 Michael Hill

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A postcard from my Abstract No.12 series-© 2007 Michael Hill

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A postcard from my Abstract No.7 series-© 2006 Michael Hill

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A postcard from my Abstract No.10 series-© 2007 Michael Hill

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A postcard from my Abstract No.13 series-© 2007 Michael Hill

Cards in an edition are all original prints, similar in design but with no exact duplicates as can be seen in the following four examples from  the Abstract No-14 series. These cards were all made in the same batch during the same printmaking session. Variations in colour, texture and in the position of compositional elements can be detected.

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A postcard from my Abstract No.14 series-© 2007 Michael Hill

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A postcard from my Abstract No.14 series-© 2007 Michael Hill

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A postcard from my Abstract No.14 series-© 2007 Michael Hill

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A postcard from my Abstract No.14 series-© 2007 Michael Hill

Posts of my graphic based material include:  THE GRAFIK GUITAR   BOOKBINDING THE GRAFIK GUITAR   CARTOON   MORE CARTOONS   RESEARCH CARTOONS   UNIVERSITY CARTOONS   POSTCARD   POSTCARD-Second Series   POSTCARD-Third Series   POSTCARD-Fourth Series    POSTCARD-Fifth Series    PRINT Fish Tai   PRINT Fish Two   SCRAPBOOK  SCRAPBOOK-More Pages   SCRAPBOOK-A Few Pages More  and the posts on production of my artist book/comic BLOTTING PAPER:  Issue #1: No.1   No.2   No.3   No.4   No.5   No.6   No.7   No.8   No.9   No.10   No.11   No.12   No.13   Issue #2: No.14   No.15   No.16   No.17   No.18   No.19   No.20   No.21   No.22   No.23   No.24   No.25   No.26   No.27   No.28   No.29   Issue #3: No.30   No.31   No.32   No.33   No.34   No.35   No.36   Issue #4: No.37   No.38   No.39   No.40   No.41   No.42   No.43   No.44   Issue #5: No.45   No.46   No.47   No.48